We give a brief overview of the early history of probability theory, which leads to the early history of the Monte Carlo method. Early Monte Carlo came together with a special group of physicists and mathematicians at Los Alamos along with the transition from analog and hand computation to automatic digital computing. This early marriage of Monte Carlo and high-performance computing (HPC) has continued. We then present an overview of some Monte Carlo methods, and show how modern developments continue to be strongly linked to developments in HPC. We conclude with some remarks about future trends in HPC and how Monte Carlo is very well situated to enable further developments.